Beginning of Rana Rule

After Kot Parva in 1903 BS, Junga Bahadur Rana became the Prime Minister and commander-in-chief of Nepal. Similarly, after Alau Parva, he made Surendra Bikram Shah as the King of Nepal. He took all the state powers from King Surendra and started to rule in Nepal as a dictator. He made a new rule of succession, according to which only Rana family could hold the post of Prime Minister. The Rana Rule was cruel and despotic. They ruled in Nepal for 104 years. Nepalese people launched an armed revolution in 2007 in leadership of Nepali Congress and the Rana rule came to an end.

Causes of Revolution

  • Effect of Second World War :- After the end of the world War II, independence movement spread worldwide against the colonial rule. Several countries of asia and Africa got independence from British, French and dutch rule. Many Nepalese soldiers, who participated in World War II, became politically aware. They had formed an organization called Gorkha League in deharadun to fight against the rana rule. When nepali congress formed people's liberation army, the ex-soldiers joined there and fought against the rana rule.

  • Independence of India :- Many Nepalese students who were in india for their higher study, had participated in Indian war of independence. And some of them were imprisoned by the british in india along with the Indian leaders. After the independence of india in 1947 AD, all of them returned to Nepal to fight against the rana rule.

  • Policy of Mohan shumsher :- Policy of mohan shumsher was also responsible for the revolution of 2007. During his rule lots of changes were taking place in the world. Dictatorial rule had ended one after another in the world, independence movements were going on, people became politically aware but mohan shumsher didn't want to change himself according to change of time. He adopted suppressive policy and compelled the people to revolt against his rule. Due to the policy of mohan shumsher, Nepalese youth went to india and formed political party and the people's liberation army (janamukti sena) to fight against rana rule. Those soldiers who had participated in the second world war had trained the Nepalese people.

  • Division in rana family :- there was no unity among the ranas. Chandra shumsher had divided the rana into A,B and C classes. "C" class rana were not included in role of succession. So they wanted to end the rana rule in Nepal.

Major events of movement

When the nepali congress was preparing for an arm revolution against tyrannical rule of rana throughout the country, king Tribhuvan escaped from the palace and went to the Indian embassy along with his family members. On 21st kartik, 2007 BS, he went to delhi in Indian air force helicopter. Mohan shumsher, the then prime minister enthroned Gyanendra, the second grandson of Tribhuvan. He was declared the king of Nepal. But india and other countries did not recognize this act of mohan shumsher. At the same time, the liberation army captured eastern hill region along with Biratnagar and palpa.

The battle took place in various parts of the country between people's liberation army and ranas. The people's liberation army captured illam, diktel, aathrai, terhathum, okhaldhunga, parwanipur, bhairahwa, Kailali, kanchanpur, doti, rangeli, malangawa, upardanggadi, birgunj and parasi. Similarly, bhojpur, khotang, dhankuta, mahotari, mahinath, thori, Chitwan, taulihawa. Pokhara, gulmi, syangja, baglung, koilabas, dang-deukhuri, pyuthan, dadeldhura, surkhet, dailekh, baitadi, shivaraj khajahani, Biratnagar and sirsiya were captured by the liberation army with minor battles or without any battles.

People started to come to the street with various slogans against the rana regime in Kathmandu and other places of Nepal. Everywhere people started to oppose the ranas day by day. Many people were arrested but the movement spread more effectively. Mohan shumsher could not handle the country and requested the Indian government to arbitrate for a solution. On the arbitration of Indian government king Tribhuvan, ranas and nepali congress started to negotiate in delhi in 2007 BS. This is called the delhi agreement. This agreement ended the rana rule in Nepal. According to this agreement an interim government could be formed where five ministers were from the ranas and five ministers were from the nepali congress. After this agreement, king returned to Nepal on 7th falgun 2007 BS (18th Feb 1951 AD) king made a declaration of the establishment of democracy and the end of the rana rule from Nepal.

Main provisions of delhi agreement

  • Election of constitution assembly will be held to draft a new constitution.
  • A ten member cabinet will be formed where five ministers will be from the ranas and five from nepali congress to run the daily administration until new constitution is made.
  • King Tribhuvan will be the legitimate king of Nepal.
  • General amnesty to all political prisoners.
  • Agitators had to hand over their weapons to the government and stop the movement.

After this agreement, the nepali congress agreed to stop the movement. But Dr. K.I. Singh, one of the commanders of people's liberation army in western front disagreed with the delhi agreement and denied to hand over the weapons because many people had sacrificed their life to end the rana rule but after the delhi agreement again mohan shumsher became the Prime Minisrer of Nepal. Dr. K.I. Singh wanted to continue the revolution but his movement was suppressed.

Consequences of revolution

The revolution of 2007 was the great achievement in the history of Nepal. The regime established by junga bahadur after kot parva came to an end by revolution. Major consequences of this revolution are as follows :

  • End of the rana rule and establishment of democracy in Nepal for the first time,
  • People got rights, and freedom,
  • King restored his royal power,
  • Interim constitution and interim government were formed,
  • Development work started to take place in Nepal.

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